Aanval op Soma (Afrikaans Edition)

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These findings suggest that modifying certain work practices could potentially reduce BuChE inhibition. Replication from other studies will be valuable. Fall armyworm FAW is a damaging pest of many economic crops. Long-term use of chemical control prompted resistance development to many insecticide classes. Many populations were found to be significantly less susceptible to major Bt toxins expressed in transgenic crops.

Dose response assays showed that the PR strain developed fold resistance to acephate. Besides having a slightly smaller larval body weight and length, PR also evolved a deep 2. When enzyme preparations from the whole larval body were examined, all three esterase, GST, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activities were significantly elevated in the PR strain, while ALP and APN activities were not significantly different from those of susceptible strain.

Esterases and GSTs may be associated with acephate resistance through elevated metabolic detoxification. Further studies are needed to clarify whether and how esterases, GSTs, and other enzymes such as Ps are involved in cross resistance development to Bt and other insecticide classes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

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Efficacy of an insecticide paint against insecticide -susceptible and resistant mosquitoes - Part 1: Laboratory evaluation. Full Text Available Abstract Background The main malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the urban pest nuisance Culex quinquefasciatus are increasingly resistant to pyrethroids in many African countries. There is a need for new products and strategies. Methods Mosquitoes used were laboratory strains of Cx. Insecticide efficacy was studied in terms of delayed mortality using minute WHO bioassay cones.

IGR efficacy on fecundity, fertility and larval development was studied on OP -resistant females exposed for 30 minutes to cement treated and control surfaces. On cement, death rates were low 12 months after treatment regardless of the dose and the resistance status. Fecundity, fertility and adult emergence were reduced after treatment even at the lower dose p A reduction in fecundity was still observed nine months after treatment at both doses p -3 and adult emergence was reduced at the higher dose p Conclusions High mortality rates were observed against laboratory strains of the pest mosquito Cx.

Long-term killing remained equally important on non-porous surfaces regardless the resistance status for over 12 months. The paint's effect on fecundity, fertility and. Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.

In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron RR95 OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities.

Sudden bilateral hearing loss after organophosphate inhalation. Full Text Available Sudden bilateral hearing loss are seen rarely and the toxic substance exposure constitutes a small part of etiology. A Fifty-eight-year-old woman admitted to our clinic with sudden bilateral hearing loss shortly after chlorpyrifos-ethyl exposure. Otolaryngologic examination findings were normal. Additional diagnostic tests were normal. The conventional treatment for sudden hearing loss was performed. On the second week following organophosphate OP exposure the patient's hearing loss almost completely resolved.

OP 's are heavily used in agriculture and should be taken into consideration as an etiologic factor in sudden hearing loss. Keywords: Organophosphates , Hearing loss, Sudden. Cholinesterases and neurotoxicity as highly sensitive biomarkers for an organophosphate insecticide in a freshwater gastropod Chilina gibbosa with low sensitivity carboxylesterases. Azinphos-methyl has been found in water from this region throughout the year at a maximum concentration of Toxicological studies on local non-target species have been performed mostly on vertebrates, while mollusks, which could be more sensitive, have not been studied so far.

This work aims to characterize cholinesterase ChE and carboxilesterase CE activities of Chilina gibbosa, a freshwater gastropod native to southern Argentina and Chile. These enzymes, together with neurotoxicity signals, are evaluated herein after as sensitive biomarkers of exposure to azinphos-methyl at environmentally relevant concentrations. Effects of azinphos-methyl on antioxidant defenses: glutathione GSH , catalase CAT , superoxide dismutase SOD and glutathione S-transferase GST are also studied in order to complete a set of biomarkers with different sensitivity and specificity, to propose C.

The lowest Km and the highest efficiency for ChE were obtained with acetylthiocholine. Regarding CEs activities, a higher efficiency was obtained with p-nitrophenyl butyrate than with p-nitrophenyl acetate. Our results show that C. CEs have been reported to be more sensitive to OPs than ChEs in most of the aquatic invertebrates protecting the organisms from neurotoxic effects. In contrast, C. Biphasic cuirass ventilation is better than bag-valve mask ventilation for resuscitation following organophosphate poisoning. Conclusions: The noninvasive, easy-to-operate Biphasic Cuirass Ventilation device was effective in reducing OP -induced mortality and might be advantageous in an organophosphate mass casualty event.

This finding should be validated in further investigations. Characterizing the insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in Mali. The impact of indoor residual spraying IRS and long-lasting insecticide nets LLINs , key components of the national malaria control strategy of Mali, is threatened by vector insecticide resistance. The objective of this study was to assess the level of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations from Mali against four classes of insecticide recommended for IRS: organochlorines OCs , pyrethroids PYs , carbamates CAs and organophosphates OPs.

Identification of sibling species and presence of the ace-1 R and Leu-Phe kdr, resistance-associated mutations, were determined using polymerase chain reaction PCR technology. Biochemical assays were conducted to detect increased activity of GSTs, oxidases and esterases. Populations tested showed high levels of resistance to DDT in all 13 sites, as well as increased resistance to deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in 12 out of 13 sites.

Resistance to fenitrothion and bendiocarb was detected in 1 and 4 out of 13 sites, respectively. Anopheles coluzzii, An. Relatively low allelic frequencies of ace-1 R were detected in four sites where this assessment was conducted. Evidence of elevated insecticide metabolism, based on oxidase. Presentation and management of organophosphate poisoning in an intensive care unit.

To determine the various demographic factors, clinical features, management and outcome of organophosphate poisoning in an intensive care unit ICU setting. Study Design: Descriptive quantitative study. From February February A complete history was taken from the patients and relatives. Baseline laboratory investigations were done. All the data was tabulated on a structured performed after tasking consent from the relatives. Variables of the study were demographic factors as gender, age, cause and mode of poisoning, clinical course, ICU management and its outcome.

The age varied from years. All these patients were given atropine and pralidoxime. The time duration of mechanical ventilation was weeks. All the patients were successfully recovered. Total duration of hospital stay on our patients was weeks. Conclusion: Early and aggressive management of organophosphate poisoning in an ICU setting reduces not only the mortality but also decreases the duration of hospital stay. Multiple insecticide resistances in the disease vector Culex p.

Several mosquito-borne diseases affect the Western Indian Ocean islands. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus is one of these vectors and transmits filariasis, Rift Valley and West Nile viruses and the Japanese encephalitis. To limit the impact of these diseases on public health, considerable vector control efforts have been implemented since the 50s, mainly through the use of neurotoxic insecticides belonging to Organochlorines OC , Organophosphates OP and pyrethroids PYR families. However, mosquito control failures have been reported on site, and they were probably due to the selection of resistant individuals in response to insecticide exposure.

In this study, we used different approaches to establish a first regional assessment of the levels and mechanisms of resistance to various insecticides. Bioassays were used to evaluate resistance to various insecticides , enzyme activity was measured to assess the presence of metabolic resistances through elevated detoxification, and molecular identification of known resistance alleles was investigated to determine the frequency of target-site mutations. These complementary approaches showed that resistance to the most used insecticides families OC, OP and PYR is widespread at a regional scale.

However, the distribution of the different resistance genes is quite heterogeneous among the islands, some being found at high frequencies everywhere, others being frequent in some islands and absent in others. These widespread and diverse resistance mechanisms reduce the capacity of resistance management through classical strategies e. In case of a disease outbreak, it could undermine the efforts of the vector control services, as only few compounds could be used.

It thus becomes urgent to find alternatives to control populations. To limit the impact of these diseases on public health, considerable vector control efforts have been implemented since the 50s, mainly through the use of neurotoxic insecticides belonging to Organochlorines OC, Organophosphates OP and pyrethroids PYR families.

It thus becomes urgent to find alternatives to. Organophosphate -induced intermediate syndrome: aetiology and relationships with myopathy. The intermediate syndrome IMS following organophosphorus OP insecticide poisoning was first described in the mids. The syndrome described comprised characteristic symptoms and signs occurring after apparent recovery from the acute cholinergic syndrome. As the syndrome occurred after the acute cholinergic syndrome but before organophosphate -induced delayed polyneuropathy, the syndrome was called 'intermediate syndrome'.

It usually becomes established days after exposure when the symptoms and signs of the acute cholinergic syndrome e. The characteristic features of the IMS are weakness of the muscles of respiration diaphragm, intercostal muscles and accessory muscles including neck muscles and of proximal limb muscles. Accompanying features often include weakness of muscles innervated by some cranial nerves.

It is now emerging that the degree and extent of muscle weakness may vary following the onset of the IMS. Thus, some patients may only have weakness of neck muscles whilst others may have weakness of neck muscles and proximal limb muscles. These patients may not require ventilatory care but close observation and monitoring of respiratory function is mandatory.

Management is essentially that of rapidly developing respiratory distress and respiratory failure. Delays in instituting ventilatory care will result in death. Initiation of ventilatory care and maintenance of ventilatory care often requires minimal doses of non-depolarising muscle relaxants. The use of depolarising muscle relaxants such as suxamethonium is contraindicated in OP poisoning. The duration of ventilatory care required by patients may differ considerably and it is usual for patients to need ventilatory support for 7. OPS Master. Using OPS Master, the three principal Carboxylesterase-mediated insecticide resistance: Quantitative increase induces broader metabolic resistance than qualitative change.

Carboxylesterases are mainly involved in the mediation of metabolic resistance of many insects to organophosphate OP insecticides. Qualitative mechanism has been observed in few species. However, whether this carboxylesterase mutation mechanism is prevalent in insects remains unclear. These germlines were ubiquitously expressed as induced by tub-Gal4. In carboxylesterase activity assay, the introduced mutant carboxylesterase did not enhance the overall carboxylesterase activity of flies. Less than 1.

However, transgenic flies universally showed low resistance to OP insecticides compared with non-transgenic flies. The flies expressing A. The present transgenic Drosophila system potentially showed that a quantitative increase in carboxylesterases induced broader resistance of insects to insecticides than a qualitative change. Therapeutic efficacy of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine CPA against organophosphate intoxication. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether reduction of central acetylcholine ACh accumulation by adenosine receptor agonists could serve as a generic treatment against organophosphate OP poisoning.

The OPs studied were tabun O-ethyl-N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate , sarin. Chlorpyrifos CP is an organophosphate OP pesticide that was used as a model compound to investigate the transformation of OP pesticides at low pH and in the presence of bromide and natural organic matter NOM under drinking water treatment conditions.

Raman spectroscopy was A nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the detection of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase AChE adducts, which is a potential exposure biomarker for organophosphate pesticides OP and chemical warfare nerve agent exposures. The captured QD tags were determined on the SPE by electrochemical stripping analysis of its metallic component cadmium after an acid-dissolution step. Paraoxon was used as a model OP insecticide to prepare the phosphorylated AChE adduct to demonstrate the proof of principle for this sensor technology.

The parameters e. The voltammetric response of the immunosensor is highly linear over the range of 10 pM to 4 nM paraoxon-AChE, and the limit of detection is estimated to be 8 pM. This new nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunosensor thus provides a sensitive and quantitative tool for biomonitoring exposure to OP pesticides and nerve agents. New generic approach to the treatment of organophosphate poisoning : Adenosine receptor mediated inhibition of ACh-release.

Current treatment of acute organophosphate OP poisoning includes a combined administration of a cholinesterase reactivator oxime , a muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine and an anticonvulsant diazepam. This treatment is not adequate since it does not prevent neuronal brain damage and. New generic approach to the treatment of organophosphate poisoning: Adenosine receptor mediated inhibition of ACh-release. Anticholinesterase insecticide retrospective. The anticholinesterase antiChE organophosphorus OP and methylcarbamate MC insecticides have been used very effectively as contact and systemic plant protectants for seven decades.

About 90 of these compounds are still in use - the largest number for any insecticide chemotype or mode of action. In both insects and mammals, AChE inhibition and acetylcholine accumulation leads to excitation and death. The cholinergic system of insects is located centrally where it is protected from ionized OPs and MCs but not at the neuromuscular junction. Structural differences between insect and mammalian AChE are also evident in their genomics, amino acid sequences and active site conformations. Species selectivity is determined in part by inhibitor and target site specificity.

Pest population selection with OPs and MCs has resulted in a multitude of modified AChEs of altered inhibitor specificity some conferring insecticide resistance and others enhancing sensitivity. Much of the success of antiChE insecticides results from a suitable balance of bioactivation and detoxification by families of CYP oxidases, hydrolases, glutathione S-transferases and others.

Known inhibitors for these enzymes block detoxification and enhance potency which is particularly important in resistant strains. Despite this decline, they still play a major role in pest control and the increasing knowledge on their target sites and metabolism may make it possible to redesign the inhibitors for insensitive AChEs and to target new sites in the cholinergic system. The OPs and MCs are down. Currently, insect growth regulators IGRs and the OP malathion are employed against larvae and adults, respectively. Biochemical assays revealed higher metabolic resistance activity esterases, mixed function oxidases and glutathione-S-transferases at Aracaju.

With respect to fitness aspects, mating effectiveness was equivalently impaired in both populations, but Aracaju mosquitoes showed more damaging effects in terms of longer larval development, decreased bloodmeal acceptance, reduced engorgement and lower numbers of eggs laid per female. Compared with mosquitoes in Crato, Aracaju mosquitoes exhibited lower OP and pyrethroid RR 95 , increased activity of detoxifying enzymes and greater effect on fitness.

The potential relationship between insecticide resistance mechanisms and mosquito viability is discussed. Organophosphate pesticides-induced changes in the redox status of rat tissues and protective effects of antioxidant vitamins. Organophosphates OPs pesticides are among the most toxic synthetic chemicals purposefully added in the environment. The common use of OP insecticides in public health and agriculture results in an environmental pollution and a number of acute and chronic poisoning events.

Present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of monocrotophos and quinalphos to effect the redox status and glutathione GSH homeostasis in rat tissues and find out whether antioxidant vitamins have some protection on the pesticide-induced alterations. These pesticides, alone or in combination, caused alterations in the activities of GSH reductase and glucosephosphate dehydrogenase in the rat tissues.

However, the expression of the GSH recycling enzymes did not show significant alterations as compared to control. From the results, it can be concluded that these pesticides generate oxidative stress but their effects were not synergistic when given together and prior feeding of antioxidant vitamins tend to reduce the toxicities of these pesticides. Effect of selected insecticides on SF9 insect cell line. The toxic effect of three insecticides : dimethoate organophosphate insecticide , acetamiprid neonicotinoid insecticide and deltamethrin pyrethroid insecticide were evaluated in vitro on cultured Sf9 cell line.

Cell growth inhibition was measured by the 3- 4,5- dimethylthiazol - 2-yl - 2,5 - diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. The IC 20 values obtained for deltamethrin, acetamipridand dimethoate were: The proportion of phagocytic cells was positively correlated with the applied concentrations of the insecticides. Atropine is the mainstay of therapy in organophosphate OP toxicity, though research and consensus on dosing is lacking.

In , as reported by Eddleston et al. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 6 , , they noted variation in recommended regimens. We assessed revisions of original references, additional citations, and electronic sources to determine the current variability in atropine dosing recommendations. Updated editions of references from Eddleston et al. Oxidative stress in organophosphate poisoning: role of standard antidotal therapy. Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate OP toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase AChE being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways.

Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of OP poisoning and the influence of commonly used medical interventions on its levels are discussed.

Current standardized therapy of OP intoxications comprises live-saving administration of the anticholinergic drug atropine accompanied by oxime AChE reactivator and diazepam. The capability of these antidotes to ameliorate OP -induced oxidative stress varies between both therapeutic groups and individual medications within the drug class. Regarding oxidative stress, atropine does not seem to have a significant effect on oxidative stress parameters in OP poisoning. In a case of AChE reactivators, pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties could be found. It is assumed that the ability of oximes to trigger oxidative stress is rather associated with their chemical structure than reactivation efficacy.

The data indicating the potency of diazepam in preventing OP -induced oxidative stress are not available. Based on current knowledge on the mechanism of OP -mediated oxidative stress, alternative approaches including antioxidants or multifunctional drugs in therapy of OP poisoning are under consideration. The continuous and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides , for decades, has led to the selection of resistant populations and has caused concerns for human health and the environment. An alternative is the use of botanical insecticides , including through the mixtures with synthetic insecticides.

This study aimed to investiga Miotoxicidade por organofosforados Organophosphate myotoxicity. Organophosphates comprise a group of chemical compounds extensively used in farming as insecticides , which cause accidental poisoning in animals and men and are also used in suicide attempts. The toxicity of these compounds is due especially to the cardiac and respiratory impairment in consequence of autonomic nervous system disorders. However, it is known that some of these products induce a myopathy in experimental animals and humans.

This myopathy is characterized by muscle cell degeneration, involving above all the respiratory muscles. Based on the fact that this involvement certainly enhances the. The interrelation between organophosphate toxicity and the epidemiology of depression and suicide. The literature on an association between organophosphate OP toxicity and depression or suicide is scarce. An interrelation exists among populations exposed to OPs , acute OP toxicity, neurobehavioral effects, depression, suicide, and fatality.

Acute OP toxicity is characterized by the cholinergic syndrome with systemic and central nervous system effects.

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Organophosphate -induced neurobehavioral effects result in depression. A potential risk of depression and suicide exists in farm workers exposed to OPs. The sociodemographics of depression include age, gender, race, geographic region, social factors, economics, psychiatric disorders, medical conditions, and hereditary factors. Suicide is a major consequence of depression, with multiple sociodemographic risk factors. Developing countries have a higher incidence of OP toxicity, with limited information on the prevalence of depression. In these countries, the incidence of suicide is high, affecting more females.

Suicide is more prevalent in rural areas, and in farming communities, commonly with ingestion of OPs. In industrialized countries, the incidence of OP toxicity is lower, but the prevalence of depression is higher. Suicide rates are lower in industrialized countries, affecting more males, the urban population, and farming communities. Other lethal methods of suicide, such as hanging, firearms, electrocution, and drug overdose are more common in industrialized countries.

A potential risk of depression or suicide certainly exists from OP toxicity, largely depending on the epidemiology or sociodemographics of these disorders. Scientific evidence shows that the association between environmental toxicology and psychiatry has important public health implications. Full Text Available Background: Cardiac manifestations that occur in a majority of patients with organophosphate OP poisoning may range from innocuous electrocardiographic manifestations, such as sinus tachycardia, to life-threatening complications, including cardiogenic pulmonary edema and myocardial necrosis.

In this study, we evaluated the various electrocardiographic manifestations in patients with OP poisoning. Methods: This retrospective-descriptive study was performed by reviewing the medical records from all patients poisoned with organophosphate admitted to Razi Educational Hospital, Rasht, Iran, from April to March Patients with incomplete records were excluded from the study.

Histories of all patients were collected and ECG analysis was conducted including the rate, rhythm, ST-T abnormalities, conduction defects, and measurement of PR and QT intervals by a cardiologist. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS software version The mean age of the patients was The causes of poisoning were occupational in 71 patients, suicidal in 26 patients, and accidental in 3 patients. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes Arequipa, Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate OP pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited age, 20—60 years. In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application.

Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites.

Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk.

A potentiometric enzyme electrode for the direct measurement of organophosphate OP nerve agents was developed. The basic element of this enzyme electrode was a pH electrodemodified with an immobilized organophosphorus hydrolase OPH layer formed by cross-linkingOPH Effects of time-variable exposure regimes of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on freshwater invertebrate communities in microcosms.

The present study compared the effects of different time-variable exposure regimes having the same time-weighted average TWA concentration of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos on freshwater invertebrate communities to enable extrapolation of effects across exposure regimes. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti L.

Diptera: Culicidae. This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides , thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae.

Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases GST , were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain.

The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate OP temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered.

The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius Homoptera: Aleyrodidae and Anopheles gambiae Giles Diptera: Culicidae could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa. Insecticides from the organophosphate OP and pyrethroid PY chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year mainly on cotton , has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables.

The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato s. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance kdr and acetylcholinesterase gene Ace1 mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance.

Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina.

Invloed reinigingsmiddelen op mestsamenstelling. Het afvalwater dat vrijkomt bij de reiniging en ontsmetting van melkinstallaties kan op dit moment maar op enkele manieren verwerkt worden. Lozing op het riool en mengen met de mest zijn de belangrijkste. Organophosphates OPs pesticides are among the most toxic synthetic chemicals purposefully added in the environment.

The common use of OP insecticides in public health and agriculture results in an environmental pollution and a number of acute and chronic poisoning events. Present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of monocrotophos and quinalphos to effect the redox status and glutathione GSH homeostasis in rat tissues and find out whether antioxidant vitamins have some protection on the pesticide-induced alterations.

These pesticides, alone or in combination, caused alterations in the activities of GSH reductase and glucosephosphate dehydrogenase in the rat tissues. However, the expression of the GSH recycling enzymes did not show significant alterations as compared to control. From the results, it can be concluded that these pesticides generate oxidative stress but their effects were not synergistic when given together and prior feeding of antioxidant vitamins tend to reduce the toxicities of these pesticides.

Effect of selected insecticides on SF9 insect cell line. The toxic effect of three insecticides : dimethoate organophosphate insecticide , acetamiprid neonicotinoid insecticide and deltamethrin pyrethroid insecticide were evaluated in vitro on cultured Sf9 cell line. Cell growth inhibition was measured by the 3- 4,5- dimethylthiazol - 2-yl - 2,5 - diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. The IC 20 values obtained for deltamethrin, acetamipridand dimethoate were: The proportion of phagocytic cells was positively correlated with the applied concentrations of the insecticides.

Atropine is the mainstay of therapy in organophosphate OP toxicity, though research and consensus on dosing is lacking. In , as reported by Eddleston et al. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 6 , , they noted variation in recommended regimens. We assessed revisions of original references, additional citations, and electronic sources to determine the current variability in atropine dosing recommendations. Updated editions of references from Eddleston et al. Oxidative stress in organophosphate poisoning: role of standard antidotal therapy.

Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate OP toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase AChE being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways. Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues.

In this review, the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of OP poisoning and the influence of commonly used medical interventions on its levels are discussed. Current standardized therapy of OP intoxications comprises live-saving administration of the anticholinergic drug atropine accompanied by oxime AChE reactivator and diazepam.

The capability of these antidotes to ameliorate OP -induced oxidative stress varies between both therapeutic groups and individual medications within the drug class. Regarding oxidative stress, atropine does not seem to have a significant effect on oxidative stress parameters in OP poisoning.

In a case of AChE reactivators, pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties could be found. It is assumed that the ability of oximes to trigger oxidative stress is rather associated with their chemical structure than reactivation efficacy. The data indicating the potency of diazepam in preventing OP -induced oxidative stress are not available. Based on current knowledge on the mechanism of OP -mediated oxidative stress, alternative approaches including antioxidants or multifunctional drugs in therapy of OP poisoning are under consideration.

The continuous and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides , for decades, has led to the selection of resistant populations and has caused concerns for human health and the environment. An alternative is the use of botanical insecticides , including through the mixtures with synthetic insecticides. This study aimed to investiga Miotoxicidade por organofosforados Organophosphate myotoxicity. Organophosphates comprise a group of chemical compounds extensively used in farming as insecticides , which cause accidental poisoning in animals and men and are also used in suicide attempts.

The toxicity of these compounds is due especially to the cardiac and respiratory impairment in consequence of autonomic nervous system disorders. However, it is known that some of these products induce a myopathy in experimental animals and humans. This myopathy is characterized by muscle cell degeneration, involving above all the respiratory muscles. Based on the fact that this involvement certainly enhances the.

The interrelation between organophosphate toxicity and the epidemiology of depression and suicide. The literature on an association between organophosphate OP toxicity and depression or suicide is scarce. An interrelation exists among populations exposed to OPs , acute OP toxicity, neurobehavioral effects, depression, suicide, and fatality.

Acute OP toxicity is characterized by the cholinergic syndrome with systemic and central nervous system effects. Organophosphate -induced neurobehavioral effects result in depression. A potential risk of depression and suicide exists in farm workers exposed to OPs. The sociodemographics of depression include age, gender, race, geographic region, social factors, economics, psychiatric disorders, medical conditions, and hereditary factors. Suicide is a major consequence of depression, with multiple sociodemographic risk factors. Developing countries have a higher incidence of OP toxicity, with limited information on the prevalence of depression.

In these countries, the incidence of suicide is high, affecting more females. Suicide is more prevalent in rural areas, and in farming communities, commonly with ingestion of OPs. In industrialized countries, the incidence of OP toxicity is lower, but the prevalence of depression is higher. Suicide rates are lower in industrialized countries, affecting more males, the urban population, and farming communities.

Other lethal methods of suicide, such as hanging, firearms, electrocution, and drug overdose are more common in industrialized countries.

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A potential risk of depression or suicide certainly exists from OP toxicity, largely depending on the epidemiology or sociodemographics of these disorders. Scientific evidence shows that the association between environmental toxicology and psychiatry has important public health implications. Full Text Available Background: Cardiac manifestations that occur in a majority of patients with organophosphate OP poisoning may range from innocuous electrocardiographic manifestations, such as sinus tachycardia, to life-threatening complications, including cardiogenic pulmonary edema and myocardial necrosis.

In this study, we evaluated the various electrocardiographic manifestations in patients with OP poisoning. Methods: This retrospective-descriptive study was performed by reviewing the medical records from all patients poisoned with organophosphate admitted to Razi Educational Hospital, Rasht, Iran, from April to March Patients with incomplete records were excluded from the study. Histories of all patients were collected and ECG analysis was conducted including the rate, rhythm, ST-T abnormalities, conduction defects, and measurement of PR and QT intervals by a cardiologist.

Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted by SPSS software version The mean age of the patients was The causes of poisoning were occupational in 71 patients, suicidal in 26 patients, and accidental in 3 patients. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters.

Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes Arequipa, Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate OP pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited age, 20—60 years. In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application.

Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector.

Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk.

A potentiometric enzyme electrode for the direct measurement of organophosphate OP nerve agents was developed. The basic element of this enzyme electrode was a pH electrodemodified with an immobilized organophosphorus hydrolase OPH layer formed by cross-linkingOPH Effects of time-variable exposure regimes of the insecticide chlorpyrifos on freshwater invertebrate communities in microcosms. The present study compared the effects of different time-variable exposure regimes having the same time-weighted average TWA concentration of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos on freshwater invertebrate communities to enable extrapolation of effects across exposure regimes.

The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti L. Diptera: Culicidae. This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides , thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays.

The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases GST , were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate OP temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae.

The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered.

The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius Homoptera: Aleyrodidae and Anopheles gambiae Giles Diptera: Culicidae could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa. Insecticides from the organophosphate OP and pyrethroid PY chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease.

The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year mainly on cotton , has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato s. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes.

Identification of knock down resistance kdr and acetylcholinesterase gene Ace1 mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An.

Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina. Invloed reinigingsmiddelen op mestsamenstelling. Het afvalwater dat vrijkomt bij de reiniging en ontsmetting van melkinstallaties kan op dit moment maar op enkele manieren verwerkt worden.

Lozing op het riool en mengen met de mest zijn de belangrijkste. Efficacy of fresh packed red blood transfusion in organophosphate poisoning. The mortality rate caused by organophosphate OP poisoning is still high, even the standard treatment such as atropine and oxime improves a lot.

To search for alternative therapies, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of packed red blood cell RBC transfusion in acute OP poisoning, and compare the therapeutic effects of RBCs at different storage times. Patients diagnosed with OP poisoning were included in this prospective study. Cholinesterase ChE levels in blood, atropine usage and durations, pralidoxime durations were measured. Packed RBCs might be an alternative approach in patients with OP poisoning, especially during early stages.

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Full Text Available Paraoxonase PON1 is a calcium dependent enzyme that is capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate anticholinesterases. PON1 activity is present in most mammals and previous research established that PON1 activity differs depending on the species. These studies mainly used the organophosphate substrate paraoxon, the active metabolite of the insecticide parathion. Using serum PON1 from different mammalian species, we compared the hydrolysis of paraoxon with the hydrolysis of the active metabolites oxons of two additional organophosphorus insecticides , methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos.

Paraoxon hydrolysis was greater than that of methyl paraoxon, but the level of activity between species displayed a similar pattern. Regardless of the species tested, the hydrolysis of chlorpyrifos-oxon was significantly greater than that of paraoxon or methyl paraoxon. These data indicate that chlorpyrifos-oxon is a better substrate for PON1 regardless of the species. The pattern of species differences in PON1 activity varied with the change in substrate to chlorpyrifos-oxon from paraoxon or methyl paraoxon.

For example, the sex difference observed here and reported elsewhere in the literature for rat PON1 hydrolysis of paraoxon was not present when chlorpyrifos-oxon was the substrate. Full Text Available Background: Deliberate self-harm DSH is a global problem which has steadily increased over the past few years in developing countries and has become as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in these countries.

The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the prevalence of organophosphate poisoning among other acute DSH cases admitted to the medical ward at Batticaloa Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. We report the socio-demographic, and outcome of organophosphate poisoning. This study was conducted for a period of three months from April 12 through July 12, Results: Among the subjects, There were 13 Most of the patients were under the age group of years old. Out of 23 patients, there were 2 8.

Conclusion: DSH in Sri Lanka is reported to be associated with interpersonal conflict, short premeditation, as well as alcohol misuse among males. Is Apis mellifera more sensitive to insecticides than other insects? Honey bees Apis mellifera L. They commonly encounter insecticides , and the effects of insecticides on honey bees have been frequently noted. It has been suggested that honey bees may be as a species uniquely sensitive to insecticides , although no comparative toxicology study has been undertaken to examine this claim.

An extensive literature review was conducted, using data in which adult insects were topically treated with insecticides. The goal of this review was to summarize insecticide toxicity data between A. It was found that, in general, honey bees were no more sensitive than other insect species across the 62 insecticides examined.

In addition, honey bees were not more sensitive to any of the six classes of insecticides carbamates, nicotinoids, organochlorines, organophosphates , pyrethroids and miscellaneous examined. While honey bees can be sensitive to individual insecticides , they are not a highly sensitive species to insecticides overall, or even to specific classes of insecticides. An amperometric biosensor based on the immobilization of organophosphorus hydrolase OPH onto screen-printed carbon electrodes is shown useful for the rapid, sensitive, and low-costdetection of organophosphate OP nerve agents.

The sensor relies upon the sensitive and ra Qualitative evaluation of same insecticides sold in Kinshasa and users behavior survey. Malaria is a serious public health problem in the tropical countries and particularly into Kinshasa. Anopheles gambiae sl. The use of impregnated bednets is the national strategy; the chemical insecticides are used too in figthing the malaria vectors.

Quantitative structure-activity relationship QSAR for insecticides : development of predictive in vivo insecticide activity models. Quantitative structure-activity relationship QSAR analyses were performed independently on data sets belonging to two groups of insecticides , namely the organophosphates and carbamates. Several types of descriptors including topological, spatial, thermodynamic, information content, lead likeness and E-state indices were used to derive quantitative relationships between insecticide activities and structural properties of chemicals.

A systematic search approach based on missing value, zero value, simple correlation and multi-collinearity tests as well as the use of a genetic algorithm allowed the optimal selection of the descriptors used to generate the models. The QSAR models developed for both organophosphate and carbamate groups revealed good predictability with r 2 values of 0.

In addition, a linear correlation was observed between the predicted and experimental LD 50 values for the test set data with r 2 of 0. The models were also tested successfully from external validation criteria. QSAR models developed in this study should help further design of novel potent insecticides.

Brain anomalies in children exposed prenatally to a common organophosphate pesticide. Rauh, Virginia A. Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos CPF , an organophosphate insecticide , is associated with neurobehavioral deficits in humans and animal models. We investigated associations between CPF exposure and brain morphology using magnetic resonance imaging in 40 children, 5. Twenty high-exposure children upper tertile of CPF concentrations in umbilical cord blood were compared with 20 low-exposure children on cortical sur A case of organophosphate poisoning presenting with seizure and unavailable history of parenteral suicide attempt.

Only few case reports of parenteral OP poisoning have been described. We report a case of self-injected methyl parathion poisoning, presenting after four days with seizure, altered sensorium, and respiratory distress which posed a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Despite nonavailability of history of OP poisoning, he was treated based on suspicion and showed a good clinical response to treatment trial with atropine and pralidoxime, and had a successful recovery. Atypical presentations may be encountered following parenteral administration of OP poison, and even a slight suspicion of this warrants proper investigations and treatment for a favorable outcome.

Persistently low plasma cholinesterase level is a useful marker for making the diagnosis. Analytical method developed for measurement of dialkylphosphate metabolites in urine collected from children non-occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides in an agricultural community in Thailand. There has been increasing concern in regards to organophosphate OP pesticide exposure among farm workers and their families in Thailand's agricultural areas.

Therefore, the development of an analytical method for estimating OP pesticide exposure is necessary to allow for monitoring of OP pesticide exposures within these populations. This paper describes an analytical method developed to measure dialkylphosphate DAP metabolites in urine. The methods in this study are important in the biological monitoring of OP metabolites in agricultural families in Thailand and can be used as an initial guidance procedure in any environmental toxicological laboratory in Thailand.

Spuitbeton op voorgespannen membranen. Op de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven wordt bij de faculteit Bouwkunde onderzoek gedaan naar de mogelijkheden von 'spuitbeton op voorgespannen membranen '. Het onderzoek is onderdeel van een promotietraject. Deze techniek biedt uitkomst voor het maken von vormen die op een andere manier moeiijk. Organophosphorus insecticides : Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes. Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades.

Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters.

The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation.

Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates , because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests.

For this reason, determination of. This review discusses the sex-specific effects of exposure to various organophosphate OP pesticides throughout the life course and potential reasons for the differential vulnerabilities observed across sexes. Sex is a crucial factor in the response to toxicants, yet the sex-specific effects of OP exposure, particularly in juveniles and adults, remain unresolved. This is largely due to study design and inconsistencies in exposure and outcome assessments.

Exposure to OPs results in multiple adverse outcomes influenced by many factors including sex. Reported sex-specific effects suggest that males are more susceptible to OPs , which reflects the sex-dependent prevalence of various neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders such as autism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS , in which males are at greater risk. Thus, this review proposes that the biological sex-specific effects elicited by OP exposure may in part underlie the dimorphic susceptibilities observed in neurological disorders.

Understanding the immediate and long-term effects of OP exposure across sexes will be critical in advancing our understanding of OP -induced neurotoxicity and disease. Mechanistic modeling of insecticide risks to breeding birds in Insecticide usage in the United States is ubiquitous in urban, suburban, and rural environments.

In evaluating data for an insecticide registration application and for registration review, scientists at the United States Environmental Protection Agency USEPA assess the fate of the insecticide and the risk the insecticide poses to the environment and non-target wildlife. In this paper, we present a new mechanistic model, which allows risk assessors to estimate the effects of insecticide exposure on the survival and seasonal productivity of birds known to use agricultural fields during their breeding season. The 12 insecticides that were assessed in this study are all used to treat major pests of corn corn root worm borer, cutworm, and armyworm.

Organophosphate degrading microorganisms and enzymes as biocatalysts in environmental and personal decontamination applications. One of the major challenges in dealing with chemical warfare agent CWA dispersal, whether in the battlefield or after a terror act, is decontamination and rehabilitation of any contaminated area. Other OPs are used as pesticides in modern agriculture, and are considered environmentally hazardous.

Current methods for OP decontamination are either dangerous or insufficiently effective. As a promising solution for this problem, bioremediation--the use of biocomponents for environmental remediation--is a potentially effective, safe, and environment-friendly method. The technology relies on several enzymatic mechanisms, and can be applied in various ways. We will review recent achievements and potential applications, such as biocatalyst-containing foams and an enzymatic sponge, for environmental as well as personal exterior decontamination.

Current and emerging strategies for organophosphate decontamination: special focus on hyperstable enzymes. Organophosphorus chemicals are highly toxic molecules mainly used as pesticides. Some of them are banned warfare nerve agents. These compounds are covalent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in central and peripheral nervous systems. Numerous approaches, including chemical, physical, and biological decontamination, have been considered for developing decontamination methods against organophosphates OPs.

This work is an overview of both validated and emerging strategies for the protection against OP pollution with special attention to the use of decontaminating enzymes. Considerable efforts have been dedicated during the past decades to the development of efficient OP degrading biocatalysts. Among these, the promising biocatalyst SsoPox isolated from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is emphasized in the light of recently published results.

This hyperthermostable enzyme appears to be particularly attractive for external decontamination purposes with regard to both its catalytic and stability properties. Monitoring onkruid op biologische bedrijven. De beheersing van onkruiden op biologische bedrijven houdt niet op bij de bestrijding in het gewas. Ook gewaskeuze, teeltsysteem en vruchtopvolging hebben een grote invloed op de onkruiddruk en op de onkruidontwikkeling op het bedrijf.

Telers van het praktijknetwerk BIOM gaven aan behoefte te hebben. Surrealism Meets OP. Kids always seem to like Surrealism and Op Art. This is a fun project that is popular with students. With Op Art patience and attention to details are required while Surrealistic collage needs strong composition skills for the image placement. Often, many images must be left out to create a clean design. Artistic decisions must be based on the art…. Praktijktest antifouling op touwen.


  1. Adriana Stuijt | Space van Adriana | Page 9.
  2. My Art, My Life: An Autobiography (Dover Fine Art, History of Art).
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In een bassin op het RIVO is een praktijktest van 6 weken uitgevoerd ten behoeve van een kwantitatieve onderbouwing van de effectiviteit van antifouling op vezels voor viskooien. Er zijn twee typen antifouling Netrex en Lago en drie typen vezels getest. Gedurende de gehele proef vond geen aangroei. Watersporen op Mars. Dat geldt ook voor het effect van mogelijk aanwezig water op de landschapsontwikkeling van de Rode Planeet. Met het vrijkomen van steeds meer nieuwe. IJslandse inzichten op Mars.

Dankzij de landschappelijke gelijkenissen tussen onze aarde en Mars is het mogelijk om. The effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions for reducing organophosphate pesticide exposure among Indonesian and South Australian migrant farmworkers. Improvements of knowledge and perceptions about organophosphate OP exposure may be of benefit for the reduction in OP exposure.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve knowledge and perceptions for reducing OP exposure among Indonesian and South Australian SA migrant farmworkers. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. The educational intervention used a method of group communication for 30 Indonesian farmworkers and individual communication for seven SA migrant farmworkers. Knowledge and perceptions about OP exposure were measured pre-intervention and 3 months after the intervention.

Results: Unadjusted intervention effects at follow-up showed statistically significantly improved scores of knowledge both adverse effects of OPs and self-protection from OP exposure, perceived susceptibility, and perceived barriers among Indonesian farmworkers compared with SA migrant farmworkers. Furthermore, these four significant variables in the unadjusted model and the two other variables perceived severity and perceived benefits were statistically significant after being adjusted for the level of education and years working as a farmworker.

In contrast, knowledge about adverse effects of OPs was the only variable that was statistically significantly improved among SA migrant farmworkers. The results of this study suggests educational interventions using a method of group communication could be more effective than using individual intervention. Exposure to organophosphate and cognitive performance in chilean rural school children: an exploratory study.

Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the presence of organophosphate metabolites OP in the urine of rural schoolchildren and estimate its association with their cognitive performance. Methodology: a cross-sectional exploratory study in which a total of 25 children were assessed. Additionally, the concentration of OP metabolites in their urine was tested. Conclusions: results indicate that the rural schoolchildren whose urine was measured with OP metabolite biomarkers had been exposed to OP pesticides. We believe it is appropriate to evaluate the effects of the presence of OP metabolites on cognitive functioning in a larger sample, while considering other exposure variables.

Technetiumm diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid radioaerosol scintigraphy in organophosphate induced pulmonary toxicity: experimental study. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate pathological signs of lung damages caused by acute organophosphate OP poisoning by using Tcm DTPA radioaerosol scintigraphy and histopathological investigation. The lungs were then removed. Intraparenchymal vascular congestion and thrombosis, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, respiratory epithelial proliferation, number of macrophages in the alveolar, and bronchial lumen, alveolar destruction, emphysematous changes, and bronchoalveolar hemorrhage scores were significantly higher in the rabbits exposed to OP compared with the control group p OP toxicity caused a decrease in the alveolar clearance.

Een beeldenreeks van handen in close-up verbeelden aanvankelijk werkeloosheid, daarna arbeid en dan handen geld slijten. In de video wordt een verhaal verteld dat begint met de vroege fotoreeksen van Muybridge en uitkomt bij een beschrijving van kapitaal door Marx. Hij brengt ons aan het lachen. Dit lachen vergaat ons op het moment dat we het spoor volgen van een Braziliaanse tomaat van het veld tot op het stortterrein, genoemd Isle of Flowers, in Porto Alegre. Arrival Mani Kaul, IN , min De stad voert mannen, vrouwen, fruit, bloemen, groenten, geiten en schapen aan — alles is klaar voor consumptie.

In een collage van beelden, verbonden door een meeslepende soundtrack, zien we de wreedheid en de ontmenselijking van het stadsleven. Waar kan je het openvouwen? Hoe kan je het ooit overzien? Een artikel door de Britse reporter Tamasin Cave, in liedvorm gebracht, wordt verweven met observaties ter plaatse en interviews met lobbyorganisaties en civiele waakhondgroepen. Het verhaal van het potlood vormt een bijzonder bevattelijke illustratie.

Koop je kaartjes hier. Met het oog op de doelen die in het European Recovery Program Marshallplan vooropgesteld werden, propageert de film zelfbedieningszaken, voorverpakte varkenskarbonade en handig vormgegeven deurknoppen. In werd de Tower Colliery steenkoolmijn in Wales opgekocht door de mijnwerkers zelf, nadat de regering de mijn had gesloten uit economische overwegingen.

De mijn bleef een rendabele operatie tot in Maar terwijl de mijnwerkers hun trots en waardigheid verwoorden, gaan de tieners lijm snuiven op hun uitzichtloze toekomst in deze regio. De films die Richter maakte in de jaren , hoewel ze qua stijl abstract en surrealistisch lijken, getuigen van een sterke realiteitszin. Inflation gaat over de noodlottige inflatiespiraal tijdens de wereldwijde economische crisis van toen, die het spaargeld van iedereen liet wegsmelten.

De film maakt een vergelijking tussen de noeste fysieke arbeid voor de mijnwerkers — veel bovengronds werk werd door vrouwen gedaan — en de weelde van diegenen die profiteerden van hun harde werk. Steractrice Asta Nielsen speelt in deze stomme film de eigenares van een kopermijn op de rand van het bankroet. Tijdens de curatorenwandeling licht Monnik de gemaakte programmakeuzes toe in een rondleiding, waarbij ze de kunstenaars en deelnemers op locatie bezoeken. Het drietal bespreekt het programma in relatie tot eerder werk, persoonlijke fascinaties en huidige sociale ontwikkelingen.

Monnik is een laboratorium voor verhalen, verbeelding en onderzoek, bestaand uit Christiaan Fruneaux, Edwin Gardner en Vincent Schippers. Het drietal maakt tentoonstellingen, boeken en essays. Ze geven workshops, lezingen en onderwijs, in binnen- en buitenland, onder- en bovengronds, in de stad en op het platteland. De Curators Walk maakt deel uit van het programma Work Songs. Op abstracte wijze wordt een serie therapeutische zelfhulptechnieken gesuggereerd. Lezing: Free Libraries for Every Soul. Voor alle youTube-freaks!

De laatste festivalavond is het podium wederom van deze roemruchte liveshow. De scherpste youTube-kenners, festivalgasten en bezoekers zijn uitgenodigd te strijden voor eeuwige roem, met het publiek als jury. Toon het meest bizarre, fantastische of meelijwekkende filmpje. Geef je op als deelnemer via ytb impakt. Voor en tijdens het Impakt festival komen curatoren, kunstenaars en filmproducenten van over de hele wereld naar Utrecht.

Om het festival tot een groot succes te maken, hebben onze gasten natuurlijk ook een goede nachtrust nodig. Hiervoor zoekt Impakt kamers, woningen, leegstaande kantoren, gymzalen en zolders in Utrecht. Gastvrijheid wordt beloond met 15 euro per nacht, wanneer je een appartement of huis beschikbaar hebt kunnen we in overleg een gepaste vergoeding bepalen.

Daarnaast heb je gegarandeerd interessante gasten over de vloer, en is er uiteraard een festival passe-partout beschikbaar voor onze hosts. Ben jij of ken jij iemand die een slaapplek over heeft, laat het ons weten! Om je aan te melden als host of voor meer informatie, stuur een mailtje Hospitality impakt. De Amerikaanse industrieel Henry Ford introduceerde tussen en de lopende band. In ontwierp Sovjet dichter-ingenieur Alexei Gastev, in opdracht van Lenin, de Social Engineering Machine: een machine die boeren transformeerde tot arbeiders.

In het eerste decennium van de 21e eeuw worstelden we met de vraag hoe we van bureaucraten creatievelingen konden maken. Vandaag de dag willen we robots en de Chinese industrie te slim af zijn door lokaal, duurzaam en zelfvoorzienend te gaan produceren. Daarnaast worden we ook steeds productiever. In sliepen we gemiddeld 10 uur per dag, in was dat 8 uur en in slapen we gemiddeld nog maar 6 uur per etmaal.

Omgekeerd evenredig is onze consumptie van koffie, thee, ritalin, speed, energydrank, chocola en andere stimulerende middelen gestegen. Het koffieapparaat is het centrale punt geworden voor gezelligheid en besluitvorming in de kantooromgeving. Dat is niet voor niets.

Koffie is de ultieme kantoordrug. De Nootropics Bar onderzoekt tijdens het Impakt Festival de manieren waarop mensen elkaar en zichzelf aan het werk zetten. Een korte geschiedenis van en een lange vooruitblik op de maakbaarheid van productiviteit en creativiteit. De bibliotheek is onze eerste database en het boek onze eerste web page.

De voetnoot was de inspiratiebron voor Tim Berners Lee, de grondlegger van het wereldwijde web, toen hij de hyperlink bedacht. Het legt uit hoe we haar vorm, processen en toegang radicaal kunnen vernieuwen; van drukwerk tot application programming interface API en van grafiek tot algoritme. Hacker en cyber-librarian Marcell Mars leidt een hackathon waarbij grafisch ontwerpers, hackers, UX designers, boekmakers en programmeurs samenwerken aan een eigentijdse invulling van de droom van Melvil Dewey. De P2P-infrastructuur nodigt uit om de complete infrastructuur rond het boek te herzien.

Stel dat iedere voetnoot daadwerkelijk een hyperlink wordt die direct ieder ander boek ter wereld kan ontsluiten? Hoe kunnen we de wereldbibliotheek verrijken door met DIY-boekscanners verzetsliteratuur, gecensureerde pamfletten en obscure manuscripten toe te voegen? De opkomst van digitale netwerken heeft gezorgd voor het ontstaan van een derde modus van economische productie: commons-based peer production. Programmeurs, hackers en de open source community werken met elkaar zonder contracten, bedrijfsstructuren of andere institutionele structuren. In de Public Library Hackathon kan je 24 uur lang een steentje bijdragen aan een wereldwijde commons, de bibliotheek en canon van onze cultuur.

Een weekendje waardecreatie buiten de reguliere logica van de markt om. Neem je laptop en je woeste dromen mee! Onderzoekers weten het al lang: het oog snelt over schermen, schappen en bladzijdes, op zoek naar patronen, verleidingen en betekenissen. Het oog kan niet stilstaan, maar zoekt vluchtig naar betekenis van punt naar punt. Zelfs al staart het oog naar een lege muur, dan nog zoekt het naar aanknopingspunten. Deze choreografie van onze oogbewegingen, deze saccades, zijn als kaarten van onze ziel.

Met Reimer van Tuinen en Gawie Keyser als gids gaan we op verkenningstocht door onze beeldcultuur en onderzoeken we hoe het bewegende beeld ons oog en onze ziel verleidt, provoceert of aan het lijntje houdt. Hoe wordt het kapitalisme afgebeeld in de cinema? Hoe wordt ze menselijk, of juist onmenselijk gemaakt? Is het mogelijk om oprecht protest, verzet en kritiek te uiten op het kapitalisme vanuit de droomfabrieken van Hollywood?

Of zijn de aanvallen op het kapitalisme in films als Wall Street of Margin Call slechts afweermechanismen die het systeem opnieuw legitimeren? Saccades biedt een avondvullende beeldenstorm met het kapitalisme op de snijtafel. Saccades maakt deel uit van het programma Work Songs samengesteld door Monnik. Masterminds van de dansvloer uit Amsterdam en Antwerpen die weten om te gaan met synths, bass, beats, hits, vocalen, wankele vibes en heavy drops. De eerste Laser Poodle show ooit in Utrecht! DJ Fellow is een chaos voor global bass.

Zijn muziek zit vol met samples van traditionele Caribische ritmes en instrumenten, aangevuld met korzelige analoge synthesizers en gesampelde vocalen. Een combinatie van de ritmes van bubbling, dancehall, kuduro, reggeaton, house en bass. Een weergaloos talent van het kapitalisme, is om elke mogelijke anti-stroming of underground in te kapselen en in een getemde mainstreamvorm te gieten. Nergens zo irritant als in de muziek of de mode. Maar hoort het er niet gewoon bij?

Wie zijn de grootste sell-outs van de popgeschiedenis? Welke stromingen overleefden de tand des tijds zonder top? Is kapitalisme de redding of juist een eindpunt voor muzikale ontwikkeling? Omdat muziek meer is dan naar deuntjes luisteren, nemen drie artiesten uit verschillende takken van sport het tegen elkaar op in een contextuele DJ battle. Marek Korczynski GB is expert op het gebied van de socio-economische ontwikkeling van arbeid. Hij deed onderzoek naar de eigenaardigheden van werk, van humor tot geweld en de ontwikkelingen binnen kapitalisme in relatie tot muziek.

Of het nu gaar om wevers aan het getouw of fabrieksarbeiders aan de lopende band, muziek heeft een belangrijk patroon bepaald van het werkende leven. In aanloop naar deze tentoonstelling bereidt de Bureau of Melodramatic Research haar aandeel in To the Reader voor met een artist residency bij Impakt: het project en de performance-lezing Lovegold. Bekijk de website van Bureau of Melodramatic Research voor meer informatie en achtergrond.

Een jonge soldaat komt thuis na een missie in Afghanistan. Omer Fasts bejubelde film vertelt het verhaal van een familie die de thuiskomst van hun verloren zoon probeert te reconstrueren met mannelijke prostituees. Jara, wiskundige en beeldend kunstenaar, maakte een psychedelische animatie met vreemde karakters en geometrische patronen in een donkere out-of-control trip. Bij de koele geometrie wijkt dit soms dichterlijk af van de verwachtingen.

Even uitleggen: een Bacon-nummer staat voor het aantal filmrollen dat een acteur verwijderd is van Kevin Bacon. Een curieuze figuur laat de dagelijkse routine ontsporen. Psychologische spanning bouwt zich op en explodeert. Op 22 januari deelt de onterecht veroordeelde penningmeester van Pennsylvania, Budd Dwyer, kopietjes van zijn afscheidsspeech uit aan de pers. De publieke veroordeling die hem ten deel viel vanwege een politiek schandaal en Dwyers wereldschokkende daad waren de inspiratie voor deze reenactment.

Gedreven door persoonlijke issues toont Johnny zijn ultieme Oedipus-complex. De marketingmachines van de farmaceutische industrie zijn niet zo gek verschillend van zweverige zelfhulpmethodiek. Een nieuwe sage Shana Moulton met haar fictieve alter ego. Een instructievideo voor iedereen die van dans houdt, maar in de war raakt van de postmoderne toestand.

Een infomercial over de laatste technologische ontwikkelingen die de ontoereikendheid van de mens aan kunnen vullen. Voor de derde keer op een rij is Impakt verheugd samen te werken met LabMIS in het organiseren van een residency-uitwisseling. Een Nederlandse kunstenaar zal worden geselecteerd om daar twee maanden te werken, terwijl bij Impakt in Utrecht een Braziliaanse kunstenaar wordt ontvangen voor een zelfde periode. Momenteel is LabMIS open voor residency-voorstellen van Braziliaanse kunstenaars die een project willen uitvoeren bij Impakt, in De call is open voor kunstenaars van Braziliaanse nationaliteit of zij die er permanent gevestigd zijn.

Deadline voor aanmelding is 29 november , waarna Impakt twee voorstellen zal selecteren. Vind de call en voorwaarden op de LabMIS website. De reiskosten NL-Brazilie worden vergoed en je ontvangt een productiebudget van maximaal Klinische en psychologische methoden om ze te ontdekken lopen uiteen in deze compilatie van found footage en audio op VHS van een seksuele IQ-test. Thierry vraagt Isabelle om de weg en op een date. Ze gaat akkoord. De gevolgen voor zijn gezondheid mogen heftig zijn, hij neemt het als martelaar op de koop toe.

Locaties: een familievriendelijke optocht in Chicago, Facebook, een ambulance en een autowasserette. Een absurdistische collage van bizarre interventies die zich uitspreken tegen de in de VS gekoesterde bepalende structuren van geloof, conservatisme en kapitalisme. Zelfs met een afstand tot de maatschappij kan een man niet ontsnappen aan de structuren van het kapitalisme. Een portret van een moeizame plaats buiten de samenleving. In deze split screen plaatst Tae Eun Kim de filmische versie naast het echte leven, waarin de plaats een toeristische trekpleister is geworden.

Het laat een verhouding zien tussen gesitueerde spanning, werkelijkheid en de vertekening daarvan. In de Arabische opstanden die in ook in de Koerdische regio van Noord-Irak oplaaide, werden burgerprotesten bloedig neergeslagen. Tijdens deze dagen van onrust werd op grote schaal traangas gebruikt. Als tegengif gebruikten demonstranten citroen; opnieuw een fruitgeur, die het politieke geheugen van de bevolking met elkaar verbond.

Zestien jaar na de oorlog komen in Zagreb een paar duizend mensen bij elkaar om de uitzending waarin het hooggerechtshof een uitspraak doet over de schuld van Kroatische generaals. Een close-up van de individuele en gedeelde emoties die de uitspraak losmaakt. Natuur en mens staan op constant gespannen voet, maar wat ons extreem lijkt is een gewone, dagelijkse werkelijkheid. Een YouTube-collage over slangenbezitters en de online verslaggeving van hun dierenliefde. Er zijn frappante overeenkomsten vanaf de eerste ontmoeting: trots, maar ook stiekeme angst — want, wie heeft wie nu eigenlijk onder controle?

Een vreemd verschijnsel in een olijfboomgaard: een van de bomen veroorzaakt opstand. Terwijl het spontane protest groeit, dendert een mobiele eenheid door het landschap in een poging de rebellie te onderdrukken. Een conceptuele krimi tegen de achtergrond van een afgelegen modernistische villa.

Zes karakters, de set, de muziek, de kunstmatige geluidseffecten, de special effects, de verteller en de schrijver bevechten elkaar om de controle over het plot van de film. Een dokter Udo Kier ontvangt Heather in zijn openlucht behandelkamer in de woestijn, waar hij wordt bijgestaan door de verschijning van een zuster. During his residency at Impakt, Joaquin Segura produced several new works under the moniker Ontological Politics, with topics that mark our collective political memory and its antigonists; such as manifestos of dissent and the im possibility of language to communicate about upheaval and decline.

Melle Smets will present his work and highlight the Smati Turtle 1 project, presented within the Impakt Festival in Utrecht. Stealth techniques, culture jamming, hacking and harmless questions during lunch break. The artists in this program use various techniques to mock authorities or challenge the limits of soft and hardware.

They question existing paradigms and change our perception of art, culture or reality. I do it because I like chaos. Because copyrights make me throw up. Because I hate artist that stamp their names on their works. The video animation takes place in the heart of Vaticanal City, in the year Surrounded by the glorious frescoes and wealth of his St. Hello — Matthijs Vlot The Netherlands , mins. Forty-four actors, one song.

Equipped with an interfering transmitter! Mediengruppe Bitnik hacks surveillance cameras in pre-Olympic London and assumes control. The artist collective replaces real-time surveillance images with an invitation to play a game of chess. Wilson documents the yellow badged ScanOps workers, while simultaneously chronicling the complex events surrounding his own dismissal from the company.

It is this entity that takes up residence in the ecstatic body of Julie Andrews, turning seven innocent children into musical puppets, each one reduced to a note in the diatonic scale and it is him that lures the children of Hamelen along with his music. Vanaf begin september ontvangen we Zweedse artist in residence Marika Troili op de Impakt Headquarters. Marika maakt voor de tentoonstelling een nieuw werk op basis van haar onderzoek naar de omstandigheden van postmedewerkers in Nederland.

Marika Troili woont en werkt Stockholm. Dit jaar vindt het Bandits-Mages festival Rencontres plaats van november, in Bourges Frankrijk. Zie hier de trailer voor het festival! Meer informatie op de Bandits-Mages website. Impakt is pleased to be part of a guest screening event in the Indonesian festival OK Video , taking place in Jakarta from 5 — 15 Septmeber Een permanente staat van stress, die aangewakkerd wordt door overheidsbezuinigingen en dalend consumentenvertrouwen. Welke krachten veroorzaken crashes? Hoe kunnen deze geanalyseerd, gevisualiseerd en gereconstrueerd worden?

Welke rol spelen hormonen op de beursvloer? En de belangrijkste vraag: is het vertrouwen in de economie te herstellen? De moderatie van de avond is in handen Christiaan Fruneaux. Hij is lid van het Amsterdamse collectief Monnik, een van de curatoren van het Impakt Festival Als we werken scheppen we — heel letterlijk — de wereld om ons heen. Ons werk draagt bij tot de wereld en geeft deze inhoud en betekenis. Soms gebeurt dit op een directe en tastbare manier, aan de andere kant voeren we ook taken uit die deel uitmaken van een groter, niet te overzien geheel.

Martin Ford die ons zal duidelijk maken op welke manieren technologie de toekomstige economie modelleert, en de invloed daarvan op werk. Khannea Suntzu neemt ons nog een stap verder mee in deze gedachtegang. Wat wordt het uitgangspunt voor een dergelijke transhumanistische toekomst? Bakker verkent de verdiensten en mogelijkheden van een wereld waarin we ons technologiegedreven consumentisme kunnen weerstaan.

Hij zal de voetsporen volgen van kluizenaars, freaks, dichters, artiesten en filosofen die ontsnapt zijn aan de rat race om terug te keren naar een eenvoudigere levensstijl. Kris de Decker legt ons een andere invalshoek van technologie voor. In plaats van de magie van glimmende, betoverende hightech die onze verbeelding heeft verstrikt, stelt hij de mythe aan de kaak dat er voor elk probleem een technologische oplossing bestaat. De Decker demonstreert hoe low tech-oplossingen meer of even veel een belofte kunnen zijn, naast de vele clean tech- en duurzame energiesystemen.

Fruits of our Labor maakt deel uit van het programma Work Songs samengesteld door Monnik. In de Ghanese wijk Suami Magazine recyclen meer dan Daarnaast houden ze ons ook een spiegel voor over onze moderne manier van produceren en werken. Daarnaast bieden ze een programma waarin de overeenkomsten en verschillen tussen Suami Magazine en het krimpende Motown in Detroit worden onderzocht. Ook reflecteren ze in hun garage op de toekomst van de automobiel als digitale capsule en het verval van de auto als totem van het persoonlijke eigendom.

U bent uitgenodigd om deel te nemen aan een cartografische workshop, waarin we het metabolisme van de stad in kaart brengen. Kapitaalstromen vormen zich onophoudelijk om van monetaire energie naar tastbare producten en weer terug. De stad is als een kapitalistisch organisme.

De uitkomst van dit onderzoek wordt verwerkt in een kapitalistisch-metabolische kaart van Utrecht. Het wordt niet chic geacht om te praten over wat we verdienen of wat we kopen. Is dit een cultureel afweermechanisme? Is het een cultureel psychologisch fenomeen dat de maatschappelijke status-quo met alle onderlinge verschillen in stand houdt? We volgen uiteenlopende personen. Wie verdient wat? Wie woont waar en waarom? We onderzoeken wie wat consumeert. Maar dat is pas het het begin. Hoe beweegt deze persoon zich door de stad, hoe ziet het boodschappenlijstje er uit en waar gaan de kinderen naar school?

Hoe werkt de kapitalistische spijsvertering van de stad? Hoe rationeel is het hoofd en hoe ethisch is het hart?


  • References.
  • Full text of "Geneeskundewoordeboek : Afrikaans-Engels, English-Afrikaans"?
  • Red Hat Society(R)s Domestic Goddess (A Red Hat Society Romance Book 3);
  • Παρασκευή 10/4/15 (Επιλογές).
  • Index of /pibesilaky.cf?
  • Chateau Venus.
  • Of Blood And Pulse Part I (The Pulse Myths series Book 2).
  • Lovegold — Contemporary Alchemy is een performance-lezing waarin goud, alchemie en liefde de hoofdrollen spelen binnen het verhaal van het kapitalisme. Het Bureau of Melodramatic Research Irina Gheorghe and Alina Popa presenteert hun onderzoek naar de vertaling van materiaal naar discours door middel van abstractie. Het project, waarvan hier documentatie wordt getoond, onderzocht niet alleen de technische, juridische en bureaucratische kaders van verkeer binnen een geglobaliseerde samenleving, maar ook de emoties en verlangens achter migratie.

    In de overblijfselen van de verzorgingsstaat komt een groep kunstenaars bij elkaar in de vergaderruimte van de Royal Festival Hall in Londen. Het neoliberalisme heeft een grootschalige privatisering van openbare diensten en onroerend goed tot gevolg. Vandaag de dag worden bijvoorbeeld lokale watervoorzieningen tegen hoge prijzen teruggekocht van bedrijven.

    Luidt dit de komst in van een nieuw sociaal inzicht, waarbij de economie niet de enige maatstaf der dingen is? Of blijkt dit opnieuw een motivatie te zijn om de waarde van vastgoed te laten stijgen? Creative Change belicht de versnelde globalisering en commercialisering, en hun wisselende effect op de omgeving voor mens en natuur. De eerste decennia na het einde van de Tweede Wereldoorlog werden gevoed door de gezamenlijke grote verwachtingen over een betere toekomst.

    Binnen de spelregels van het kapitalisme droegen technische en wetenschappelijke innovaties bij aan een ongekende rijkdom en welvaart, niet voor iedereen maar toch voor vele westerlingen. Deze selectie van experimentele en documentaire films belicht de vele keerzijden van economische vooruitgang. Koop je kaartje nu!

    Magic of Markets gebruikt het beeld van mensenhanden als een losse leidraad om de relatie tussen de aandelenmarkt en de echte wereld te bespreken. Koop je kaartje hier. De bedrijvigheid op een oude marktplaats in het centrum van de stad brengt een sterk gevoel van materialisme teweeg. Geld wordt geruild voor tastbare producten: voeding, stoffen of huishoudartikelen. Zelfs het schouwspel van een traditionele beurs, waar makelaars wuiven en schreeuwen, fungeert als een fysieke verwijzing naar de virtuele handel in activa.

    Vandaag de dag doen computers het grootste werk en kopen en verkopen wordt berekend in enkele nanoseconden. Arbeid is ook een handelsproduct; het heeft zijn prijs. Often this price is too low to even cover the costs of living. Aan de hand van internationale, experimentele films, legt Trading Places zich toe op de maatschappelijke realiteit in een moderne, stedelijke economie. De idee dat kapitalisten proberen alle inmenging door de staat in de vrije markt te weren, lijkt een wijdverbreide misvatting. Integendeel, bedrijven verlangen van de staat dat die de regels en voorwaarden in hun voordeel bepaalt.

    Grote openbare aanbestedingen zijn veilige operaties. Mijnexploitatie en de verwerking van steenkool is een voorname drijvende kracht geweest voor economische vooruitgang in Europa. Hij maakt installaties, projecten in de publieke ruimte en films met onderwerpen als economie, democratie, global warming, vormen van maatschappelijke weerstand en mogelijke sociale alternatieven. What Comes Next? Alle richten ze zich op de processen van industrialisatie en modernisering, met speciale aandacht voor de wederopbouw van West-Europa na de Tweede Wereldoorlog. De film- en mediacampagnes in het Amerikaanse Marshallplan lieten niet alleen het succes zien van het uitgebreide hulpprogramma, maar promootten ook de toename van productiviteit en handel als een belangrijke voorwaarde voor groei en welvaart voor iedereen.

    Historische films worden aangevuld met hedendaags materiaal om de huidige crises van het kapitalisme en de eurozone tegen het licht te houden. De verschuiving van arbeid naar kapitaal, zoals antropoloog David Harvey aanwijst, was cruciaal voor de centralisering van welvaart door middel van de evolutie van het wereldwijde financiele systeem vandaag. De overmaat van risico-ondernemingen en het gebrek aan verantwoordelijkheid naar het gemeenschappelijk belang toe, dat inherent lijkt aan cyberkapitaal, kwam tot explosie in de crash van de banken in Naast het terugbrengen van overheidsuitgaven en de privatisering van publieke diensten is ook het dereguleren van kapitaalstromen een essentieel onderdeel van neoliberale economie.

    Alle circulatie van kapitaal is ontzettend speculatief, met andere woorden: vertrouwen en vooruitzien spelen een grote rol. De magie van aandelenbeurs is een terugkerend thema in de filmgeschiedenis. Zowel cinema als aandelenspeculatie ontsnappen aan het puur rationele begrip.

    Maar evenzo komen er alternatieve economische modellen voorbij en het verzet tegen de altijd groeiende kloof tussen arm en rijk die samenlevingen overal ter wereld dreigt te scheiden. Hij heeft al meerdere malen bijdragen geleverd aan het Impak Festival. Het Amsterdams collectief Monnik zal het Impakt Festival voorzien van een lezingenprogramma, met presentaties, workshops en debat. Met Work Songs verkent Monnik de tastbaarheid van ons economische systeem, op zoek naar houvast in een wereld die steeds minder voor de hand ligt. Dagelijks stromen onstoffelijke biljoenen, voortdurend veranderend van eigenaar of valutateken, door anonieme supercomputers.

    We weten niet meer waar de spullen in onze huizen, de kleren om onze schouders en de gadgets in onze broekzak vandaan komen, wie ze gemaakt hebben, of zelfs hoe ze gemaakt zijn. Dagelijks staan we in de supermarkt, waar seizoenen niet bestaan, en de hele wereld te koop is in behapbare porties. Al deze dingen zijn diep verweven met ons dagelijks leven, maar tegelijkertijd zijn ze het product van abstracte, onzichtbare processen.

    We wantrouwen de realiteit, de merken, en wat er op ons bord ligt. Aan de andere kant is onze wereld meer dan ooit een product van onze eigen verbeelding. Het kapitalisme zijn we uiteindelijk zelf. In het gemiddelde huishouden is de auto het meest waardevolle bezit. Zo komen schrijvers aan bod die in hun auto leefden om niet in de schulden te raken en wordt een artistieke expeditie opgezet naar Suame Magazine, in Ghana, waar Monnik gaat op zoek naar een tastbaarder en zinniger contact met de alledaagse werkelijkheid.

    Voor ons vijfde event binnen het jaarthema Capitalism Catch gingen op 2 juli economen en antropologen in op de vraag of er een relatie is tussen religie en economische groei, om zo te verkennen of een op andere morele waarden gefundeerde economie duurzamer is dan het huidige systeem. Tijdens zijn huidige residency zal hij werken aan The Girl Who Never Was , zijn volgende werk binnen deze serie.

    In zijn diverse oeuvre overdenkt Joaquin Segura geweld als alomtegenwoordig motief in het hedendaagse leven. In zijn onvoorspelbare werken streeft hij naar destabilisatie door willekeurige provocaties, gerelateerd aan onvermogen, ontkenning en teleurstelling, hier en nu. Zijn werk is gerecenseerd en gepubliceerd in vooraanstaande publicaties en kranten zoals Flash Art, Adbusters en The Washington Post.

    Meer informatie over Joaquin en zijn werk vind je op zijn website. In dit experimentele verhaal wordt een primatoloog verliefd op een bonobo. Zij wordt verliefd op Meema, het vrouwelijke alfadier. Deze grappige, oneerbiedige en slimme video gaat in op onze opvattingen over wat pervers is. Meema grijpt haar kans op een heldenrol.

    In the influential zoologist Carl Linnaeus published the first edition his masterpiece Systema Naturae, a groundbreaking taxonomy of the three kingdoms of nature.

    What is Aanval in 30 seconds

    This was the first time humans were placed in the same zoological category as monkeys. In line with this thinking, the video selection in Monkey Business searches for common ground between the species. Looking closely at animal behavior, the naked ape, vulture or alpaca in ourselves becomes visible, and might even make an interspecial love affair sound like a good idea. Impakt is op het moment bezig met het digitaliseren van haar collectie en een mediatheek wordt daar een onderdeel van. We zijn hard aan het werk om alles toegankelijk te maken.

    In hoeverre hangt economische voorspoed samen met al dan niet religieuze maatschappelijke normen en waarden? Op 2 juli gaan economen en antropologen in op de vraag of er een relatie is tussen religie en economische groei, om zo te verkennen of een op andere morele waarden gefundeerde economie duurzamer is dan het huidige systeem. Hij publiceerde in verschillende internationale tijdschriften over mandvaluta, wisselkoersen en de positie van ontwikkelingslanden.

    De laatste tien jaar houdt hij zich ook bezig met de rol van waarden en normen cultuur op economische instituties en economische prestaties. Hierover zijn boek Culture and Economics: On values, economics and international business. De Jong is daarnaast lid van de wetenschappelijke raad van het Thijmgenootschap, dat publicaties uitgeeft en symposia organiseert over verschillende wetenschappelijke onderwerpen.

    Waar mogelijk wordt hierbij een verband gelegd tussen levensbeschouwing en wetenschap. Financieel geograaf David Bassens is als assistant professor verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Tijdens Sacred Exchanges zal Bassens onder meer ingaan op de principes van de Islamitische economie, en de mate waarin dit contrasteert met de realiteit van Islamic Finance. Sabine Luning. Economisch antropoloog Sabine Luning Universiteit Leiden promoveerde op de sociale dynamiek van rituele praktijken in Burkina Faso, een onderwerp waarbij religieuze overtuigingen, politiek en sociale identiteiten samenkomen.

    Haar onderzoek richt zich op sociale verhoudingen, machtsdynamiek en de organisatiecultuur van ontwikkelingsinitiatieven. Haar huidige werk richt zich op economische antropologie, in het bijzonder de booming business van goudwinning in West Afrika. Hierbij onderzoekt Luning interacties tussen multilaterale organisaties, internationale bedrijven en locale ondernemers en gemeenschappen, alsook de morele discoursen die van toepassing zijn op deze interacties.

    They were soon met with brutality and violence by the regime of Bashar Al-Assad. Soon after the uprising against the regime of Bashar Al-Assad in Syria, the government decided to seal off the country for foreign journalists. To keep the public inside and outside of the country informed, citizen journalists and activists began to document, reflect and comment on the unfolding events in the country through videos uploaded onto the Internet.

    Alongside videos documenting protests and the violent crackdown by the regime, creative videos comment on events, mock the state-controlled media, and reflect on the dreams and goals of the revolutionaries. As the confrontation increased in violence, more and more artists began using their art as a means of activism and started uploading artistic declarations of solidarity with the uprising onto Internet platforms such as YouTube and Facebook.

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    Using only the most basic technical equipment, the videos show a mix of different techniques, found footage, image distortion, animation and performance, the necessity of fast reaction being a distinctive feature of the final works. Due to repression, many artists have been forced to leave the country and now continue their artistic and activist projects from outside Syria. Virtual Agoras is curated by Charlotte Bank. She is an independent researcher, curator and writer and lives in Berlin and Damascus.

    In she organised the Visual Arts Festival in Damascus, which now has a nomadic character. Bank collected and preserved videoworks of Syrian artists who are often forced to life in exile. On 26 June Bank will show various films and explain the relationship between the artistic and activist film productions and the political situation in Syria. In aanloop naar het Impakt Festival , vindt op 25 juni het vierde event binnen het jaarthema Capitalism Catch plaats, waarmee Impakt te gast is bij BAK, basis voor actuele kunst Utrecht.

    Ressler presenteert de twee films die hiervan het resultaat zijn. Het werk van Oliver Ressler kan zowel kunst als activisme worden genoemd. Zijn films en installaties gaan over economie, democratie, verzet en sociale alternatieven. Zorgden onder het Sovjetbewind staatsfabrieken en sociale vangnetten nog voor enige zekerheid, na de val van de muur zijn de staatsbedrijven en mijnen in handen van een kleine elite, terwijl de rest van de bevolking leeft van een minimaal inkomen.

    Tijdens dit Impakt Event vertoont hij deze nieuwe film als work-in-progress. Voor deze gelegenheid is Impakt met het event te gast bij BAK , basis voor actuele kunst:. Welke oorsprong heeft dit en welke alternatieven zijn er? How do we solve this dilemma? The word capitalism has a negative connotation for many people.

    Artists, critics and scientists mostly focus on the negative aspects of this economic system and many blame it for the current economic crisis. At the same time, capitalism contributed to a significant increase in the standards of living in and outside the western world and it cannot be denied that capitalism has served as a motor behind important innovations at all levels of society.

    Communism tried to come up with a more fair alternative, but failed, as did all the other alternatives that have been tried so far. Capitalism can, to a certain extent, deal with a need for more efficiency, but it cannot deal with the notion of consuming less. More and more people question the incentives that capitalism gives to bankers, markets, producers and consumers, and their short-term effects versus the long-term consequences.

    How can we introduce ethical notions of the consequences for people and planet in a system that only cares about profit? How can it advocate sustainable and responsible consumerism when these ideas are no longer the products of fringe ideologies, but an economic necessity that will only become increasingly urgent in the decades ahead. Toen de douane hem ooit vroeg zijn Facebook-profiel te tonen, kwam Leingruber op het idee een Facebook-identiteitskaart te ontwikkelen als alternatief paspoort.