THE H DUCT: A YEAR IN FORMULA ONE
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Upvote 5 Downvote 0 Reply 0. Before you get in to the estimation you have to consider two things in the drawing sheet 1 units of height and width of a duct. Mostly it would be in millimeters.
For All Aerodynamics Lovers
Area would be2 2. Upvote 2 Downvote 0 Reply 0. Answer added by nithin ambadi 2 years ago. Upvote 1 Downvote 0 Reply 0. Answer added by Shriraam Shriraam 1 year ago. Upvote 0 Downvote 0 Reply 0. C 1 year ago. Surface Area of rectangular duct Sq.
F10 rear wing & F-duct | Formula 1 technology and art
Answer added by Mohd Daood 1 year ago. Answer added by amjadali molla 1 year ago. Upvote 0 Downvote 0 Reply 1. Once this became evident to the governing bodies it was rapidly outlawed. Wings are now subject to static load tests to ensure that they cannot flex. So if a team were able to achieve a similar effect within the regulations, considerable straight-line performance gains could be made.
And there is a solution McLaren have found a very neat solution for redirecting the airflow over the rear wing and consequently allowing the flap to stall. Whilst they have been very tight lipped about the system, it is most likely that the conduit from the front to rear of the car has a vent in the cockpit that can be blocked by the driver left leg, which is not in use on long straights.
Blocking the vent could direct enough airflow through the conduit leading to the rear wing upper flap with build in horizontal opening slots. If you blow additional air trough this slot, this will disrupt the flow over the rear flap and induce a stall. This approach is ingenious for two key reasons:. During the preseason testing McLaren sported a little airscoop in the front of the car, claiming that only use of this snorkel is cooling of the power steering rack, hydraulic lines, electronics boxes and driver.
As McLaren continue to use testing rigs to map their cars aerodynamics, the importance of the scoop on the top of the chassis is becoming apparent. On Friday the car lapped with an array of sensors attached to the rear wing. However, there was an additional sensor mounted inside the snorkel, raising the question why would you want to test rear wing and driver cooling device simultaneously?
However the initially simple inlet has been upgraded by at least two more shapely snorkel-like derivatives, each with an apparently unnecessarily complex double wall construction creating smooth narrow inlet and a streamlined outer surface. This snorkel has been always present despite the cold and wet testing sessions, suggestion its purpose goes beyond a simple primary purpose of cooling.
In this time only a rumor around the internet suggests the inlet is linked by a duct to the shark fin and blown rear wing. At first appearing to be simply a wild rumor, that the snorkel is blocked by the driver's knee to alter the rear wing airflow. However the presence of the airflow sensor along with the rear wing test rig, suggests there might be a link after all.
The rumors suggest the driver's left braking leg, which sits unused on long straights, could be used to alter the flow from the snorkel to the rear wing duct, where a valve alters flow through the blown slot to stall the rear wing. This would reduce downforce and also drag , which would allow a higher top speed. Then the driver moves his leg to start to brake for the next turn the valve switches airflow back to normal, the wings airflow reattaches and provides the downforce needed for the turns.
As added note, it is worth noticing that such blowing slot in the flap can be used in two ways. One is adding the flow and other is stalling the flow over the wings surface. How the slot creates these two very different effects depends on the slots angle to the wings surface. To aid the airflow, you need a slot blowing nearly inline with the surface and airflow. Known as Tangential flow, this flat entry angle creates a relatively wide slot when viewed externally. To stall the airflow, you need a slot blowing at near right angles to the surface.
This creates a narrow slot when viewed externally. Looking at what you need to aid or stall the airflow also requires different placement of the slot.
For an F1 car the rear wing creates around a third of the cars downforce. But running at high speed the drag from the rear wing is tremendous. Anything that reduces the drag of the rear wing will aid top speed.
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As airflows over the surface of a wing increase, or angle of attack is bigger, it has a tendency to slow down and separate from the wing. Particularly underneath the wing which runs at a lower pressure than the top surface. This separation initially reduces efficiency by adding drag to the wing, before the airflow totally breaks up and the wing stalls. What is very important in F-Duct case is that when a wing stalls the wing loses most of its downforce and most importantly the drag.
The steeper a wings angle, the greater chance of separation. To combat this, aerodynamicists need to speed up and energize the flow near the wings lover surface. To do this they split the wing into separate elements flaps and this creates a slot. Trough the slot they send high pressure air from above the wing to the area underneath the flap which then speeds and energize the local flow underneath the wing. The more slots the steeper the wing can run. In the nineties teams can use unlimited number of elements flaps. Slowly the rule makers sought to reduce the wings potential for downforce and reduced the number of elements defined as 'closed sections' within the rules , initially to four then three and currently two.
Modern rear wings are made up to two elements, a main plane the forward and mostly bigger section of wing and a flap which sits behind it. That mean that wing is intended only to have a single slot and hence only one place to speed up the flow under the upper wing element. Previously teams have sought to use the wing stalling to gain top speed from the reduced drag. By flexing the wings at higher speed, the wings move to create smaller slot gaps, with this reducing the feed on lover part of next flap and this leads to the wings stalling.
The FIA has acted with both load tests and in the past few years with slot gap separators to prevent this practice. Slot gap separators are now mandated for the rear wing, and appear as a plate fitted around the profile of the two wing elements to prevent them moving. The McLaren wing uses a slot in the back side of the flap not the main plane , this time fed by scoop in the front of the driver and trough the shark fin.
This duct has a 'hole' in it to 'cool' the driver inside the cockpit. However, the duct continues inside the monocoque , past the fuel tank and up and over the airbox probably passing by the hatch fitted high up on the engine cover , then through the shark fin and into the rear wing flap. When the driver places his knee over the 'hole' the flow is diverted from cockpit "cooling" into the rest of the duct and this feeds the slot on the rear wing flap.
There is enough airflow and pressure through the convoluted duct to disrupt the airflow under the rear of the wing, effectively breaking up the flow around the wing.
History of Formula One regulations
This is what F1 aerodynamicists term a 'stalled' condition, although this is different to the term 'stall' used in aeronautical aerodynamics. As an F1 wing is so highly loaded, the majority of its drag is from trailing vortices, stalling the flow under the wing reduces these vortices and their inherent drag. In this 'stalled' state, the strong spiraling flows coming off the wing, that lead to the huge drag penalty at highly loaded F1 wing incurs, break up.
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